Timeline pertaining to the ancient Greek Literature from Homer to Phillip II

©2008 G.Theodoridis. All rights reserved.

Note: The Plays within brackets are no longer extant in full.


c850                    Homer possibly active.

776                       First Olympic games

c700                    Hesiod. Poet

640                      Stesichorus. Lyric Poet. (died 555)

630/612             Sappho born. Poet (died c570)

c600                    Anaximender. Philosopher (died 540)

late 5th cent       Cratylus. Philosopher

late 5th cent       Thales. Philosopher

c585                    Anaximenes. Philosopher (died c525)

580-572              Pythagoras. Mathematician. Philosopher (died 500-490)

570                      Xenophanes,  Philosopher(died 480)

c570                   Sappho dies

563                      Anacreon. Lyric Poet (died 478)

c560                    Ibycus. Greek Lyric poet

560-527            Tyranny of Peisistratus (died 527)

535                The first City Dionysia contest. Thespis wins the prize.

c535                    Heraclitus. Philosopher (died 475)

c525/4                      Aeschylus born. Dramaturg. (died 455/4)

524   Choerilus (Dramaturg) exhibited. All plays lost. (150 tragedies; thirteen times winner of 1st Prize)

522     Pindar born. Poet (died 443)

511     Phrynicus of Miletus. Dramaturg First tragic victory. Pupil of Thespis.
(The Capture of Miletus).  In 476 (Phoenissae) introduced women onto the stage, (played by men.)

c500                    Anaxagoras born. Philosopher (died c428)

c500                    Melanippides. Dithyrambic Poet

c500                    Pratinas. Dramaturg. Introduced the satyr plays

c500                    Anaxagoras (died 428)

early 5th cent.   Parmenides. Philosopher

498                      Pindar’s earliest  poem (The Tenth Pythian Ode)

496                      Sophocles born . Dramaturg.(died 406)

495                      Pericles born. Athenian politician. General. (died 429)

c490                    Ion of Chios. Poet. Philosopher. Dramaturg (died c424)

c490                    Zeno. Philosopher (died c430)

c490             Herodotus born. “Father of History.” (died between 430 and 420)

c490                    Empedocles. Philosopher (died 430)

c490                    Protagoras. Philosopher (died 420)

490                      Athenian victory over the Persians at Marathon.

487                      First ostracism held in Athens.

485                      Aeschylus’ first victory

480                      Xerxes invades Greece

480                    Birth of Euripides

479                      Greek victories at Plataea and Mycale

478                      Foundation of Delian League

476                      Pindar’s First Olympian Ode

472        Aeschylus’ “Rhineus”, “Persae” (first surviving play) “Glaucus” and “Prometheus Bound.”

470                     Pindar’s First Pythian Ode

469                      Socrates born. Philosopher (died 399)

468                  Sophocles’ first exhibition (and victory over Aeschylus)

467          Aeschylus’ “Laius,” “Oedipus,” “Seven Against Thebes” and “Sphinx”

c465                    Prodicus. Philosopher (died 415)

463?                    Aeschylus’ “Suppliant Women.”

461-451             War between Athens and Sparta. (First Peloponnesian War)

c460                    Hippias of Elis. Philosopher. (died c399)

c460                    Aeschylus’ “Prometheus Bound”

458-7                  Building of Long Walls from Athens to Piraeus.

458                      Aeschylus’ “Oresteia” and “Proteus.”

457? 445?         Aristophanes born. Dramaturg. Comedy. (died 385)

c456/5              Aeschylus dies

455                      Euripides’ First production (at City Dionysia)

454                      Treasury of the Delian League is moved from Delos to Athens.

454/3                    Kratinos’ 1st Victory. Comedy. (The Bottle?

c450                    Praxilla of Sicyon. Lyric Poet

450                      Alcibiades born. Athenian General. (died 404)

c450                  Sophocles’  “Women of Trachis”

c507?                  Bacchylides of Ceos. Lyric Poet.(flourished c 467)

c446                  Aristophanes born

445                      Thirty year peace between Athens and Sparta

445            Antisthenes (Socrates’ most devoted student) born (died 360)

445-426            Herodotus of Halicarnassus active

442-438            Parthenon Frieze

443          Ostracism of Thucydides; beginning of Pericles’ supremacy.

441                      Euripides’ first victory

c441                      Sophocles’ “Antigone”

c440                    Euripides’ “Rhesus”

c440                    Leucippus. Philosopher (floruit)

c440                    Democritus. Philosopher (floruit)

438             Euripides’  “Alcestis” (Cressae, Alcmaeon in Psophis, Telephus)

436                      Isocrates. Rhetorician (died 338)

435/4                  Kalias. Dramaturg (Kyklopes)

432                      Parthenon completed (built by Iktinos and Kalikrates)

431                      Start of second Peloponnesian War

431                     Thucydides begins his “History.”

431                      Euripides’ “Medea.” (Philoctetes, Dictys, Thersitae)

431/0                 Kratinos’ (Dionysalexandros)

c431                    Xenophon born (died 355)

c430                    Euripides’ “Heracleidae”

429                     Sophocles’ Oedipus the King (first produced)

429                      Plato born (died 347)

429                      Euripides (Hippolytus)

428/7                  Aristophanes’ (Daitales)

428                      Revolt of Mytelene

428                      Euripides’  “Hippolytus”

428                      Xenophon’s “Athinaion Politeia”

428?                    Publication of Herodotus’ “Histories”

427                      First Athenian expedition to Sicily

427                      Aristophanes’ “Banqueters”

426                      Sophocles’ “Oedipus Rex” and “Trachiniae”

426                      Aristophanes’ “Babylonians.”

426   Chaerophon asks Delphi in Corinth if Socrates was wisest man. Delphi replies “yes.”

c426/5                      Euripides’ “Andromache”

425/4                  Kratinos. Dramaturg (Deliades)

425                      Aristophanes’  “Acharnians.”

425               Cleon dominant in Athens. Date of birth uncertain. Died 422

424/3                  Kratinos  1st Prize with (Pytine)

424                      Thucydides exiled from Athens

424                      Euripides’ “Hekabe.”

424                      Aristophanes’ “Knights”

424/3                  Aristophanes (Holkades); Ameipsias (Konnos)

423                      Aristophanes’ “Clouds”

423/2                  Aristophanes (Proagon); Leukon (Presbeis)

422                      Brasidas and Cleon (Generals) killed in northern Greece

422                      Aristophanes’  “Wasps.”

c422                    Death of Kratinos

c422/3                 Euripides’ “Supplices”

422/1                   Eupolis. Dramaturg (Marikas, Kolakes))

421/0                   Pherekrates. Dramaturg (Agrioi)

421/0                   Eupolis’(Autolykos)

421                      Peace of Nikias between Athens and Sparta

421                      Aristophanes’  “Peace.”

c420                  Euripides’  “Elektra”

c417/6                    Euripides’  “Heracles”

416                      Athenians attack Melos and enslave inhabitants.

416       Erroneously extrapolated date of Plato’s “Symposium.”  Plato would only be ten years old. He published it in the 380s.

416                      Agathon wins tragic victory at Lenaia.

416/5                   Phrynicus. Dramaturg (Monotropos)

415                      Athenian expedition to Sicily.

415                      Alcibiades exiled.

415            Euripides’ “Trojan Women” (Sisyphus, Alexander, Palamedes)

415/4    Aristophanes’ “Birds,” (Amphiaraus, produced by Philonides); Ameipsia (Komastai)

c414                    Euripides’ “Ion.”

c414                    Euripides’ “Iphigeneia in Tauris.”

413                      Athenian expedition in Sicily devastated.

413                      Euripides’  “Elektra.”

413                      Sophocles’  “Elektra.”

413/2                   Eupolis’ (Demoi)

412                      Euripides’ “Helen”

412? 404?         Diogenes of Sinope. Philosopher (died 323)

411                      Aristophanes’  “Lysistrata” “Thesmophoriazousae.”

410                      Democracy restored in Athens

c410                   Euripides’  “Phoenician Women”

410-387             Andocides and Lysias speech writers.

409                      Sophocles’  “Philoctetes.” 1st Prize.

c409                    Euripides’ “Phoenissae (Oenomaus, Chrysippus)

c408                    Sophocles’ “Ajax”

c408                   Sophocles’   “Elektra”

408                      Euripides’  “Orestes.”

408                      Aristophanes’ first “Plutus.”

408/7                  Aristophanes (Gerytades)

407-6                  Alcibiades returns from exile

406/5                  Phrynicus (Mousai) Platon (Kleophon)- Dramaturgs.

406/5                   Sophocles dies.

406                      Euripides dies.

405                      Aristophanes’  “Frogs.”

405      Euripides’  “Bacchae” and “Iphigeneia in Aulis.”  Posthumously produced

404                      End of war between Athens and Sparta. Rule of the 30 tyrants (for eight months)

401                      Sophocles’  “Oedipus at Colonus.”

c400       Timotheus. Athenian General from 378 to 356. Imperialist. (died 354)

400                      Ephoros. Historian (died 330)

399                      Trial and execution of Socrates.  Plato leaves Athens.

397-338            Isocrates, educator and writer active

395                      Publication of Thucydides’  “History.”

395                      Antimachus, epic poet, active.

395/4                  Aristomenes. Dramaturg (Dionysus)

395-393            Athens rebuilds her Long Walls.

392                      Aristophanes’ “Ecclesiazousae.”

392/1                   Platon’s (Phaeon)

390-354            Xenophon, historian and essayist, active. “Anabasis”

(post)388     Aristophanes’ (Aiolosikon and Cocalus) produced by his son, Araros

389/8   Alkaios (Pasiphae), Nikophon (Adonis), Nikochares (Lakones), Dramaturgs.

388                      Aristophanes’ second “Plutus”

387                      Plato founds the Academy.

387                      Gauls sack Rome

387/6                  Aristophanes’ “Kokalos” (non extant)

c386                  Aristophanes Dies

384                      Aristotle born. (Died 322)

384                      Demosthenes born. (Died 322)

380                      Theopompous (Athenian historian, rhetorician)

367                      Aristotle joins the Academy

ca 362                  Philemon (Φιλήμων) Comic playwright (died ca 262)

359     Philip II becomes King of Macedon –End of period of the free City States. Macedonian domination and the Hellenistic period begin.

356                     Alexander the Great born (dies 323)

347                    Plato dies.

341/2                   Menander born (died ca 293/89) “New Comedy”

323                     Alexander the Great dies

323-322           Lamian War (Athens and allies against the Macedonian Antipater)

322                      Aristotle dies

322                      Demosthenes (The voice against Macedonia) dies

319                     Antipater dies.

317/6                   Menander’s Dyskolos at Lenaian festival

ca293/289           Menander dies

ca262                   Philemon dies

NOTE: For help with the pronunciation of most of these names go Here

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